THE MEASUREMENT OF ROUNDWOOD
Methodologies and Conversion Ratios
by Matthew A. Fonseca

For those of you involved in the trade, processing and harvest of roundwood, understanding volume determination, conversion ratios and product recovery is critical. The information is also important for government agencies such as forest services, trade organizations, statistical reporting entities and researchers.

This comprehensive volume provides hard-to-find information and instructions on the many methods by which roundwood and products of roundwood are measured. This includes log scales and rules used in the world today; roundwood weight-to-volume averages and physical properties for more than 400 timber species found worldwide; general information on log grading, log manufacturing quality, sampling and extrapolation procedures and methods for determining log yard inventory and mill log usage volume. Finally, all facets of product recovery are presented with many detailed tables and graphs. This book will be invaluable for those in the forest and forest products industries, and will serve as a reference textbook for students of these disciplines. You may examine  selected pages of the chapters via "Google Book Search" by clicking here.

October 2005, Cabi Publishing, 288 pages, hardback,  ISBN: 0851990797 

(Click here to get purchase information)

Reviews

"The author has done an admirable job of systematically summarising a plethora of information on measuring roundwood. This comprehensive volume is sure to be invaluable to students and practitioners in forestry and forest products industries."
Harold E Burkhart, Virginia Tech, USA

"This book is for anyone connected with the forestry profession, but especially for the student and the practitioner who must assimilate the bewildering array of measures and conversions that form the core of the practice. The clearly illustrated examples will ease the job of assimilating the intricacies of forestry measurements and serve as an irreplaceable reference throughout a career."
Henry Spelter, Economist, US Forest Service


Main Contents    

INTRODUCTION
LOG SCALING
            Basic concepts, commonalities, and differences of log scales
            Cubic measure and the major cubic log scaling methods in use
                        The USFS National Cubic Log Scale (USA)
                        British Columbia Firmwood Scale (Canada)
                        Alberta Cubic Metre Scale (Canada)
                        The Ontario Cubic Method (Canada)
                        Swedish National Board of Forestry Log Scale (Sweden)
                        Russian Standard "GOST" (Russia and members of the former USSR)
                        Cubage au Reel (France)
                        New Zealand 3-D and Mid-girth Method (New Zealand)
                        Brereton, ATIBT Method (Africa, Oceania, South America, Asia, Japan)
                        Hoppus (Africa, Oceania, South America, Asia)
                        JAS Scale (Japan, Chile, East Asia, Oceania, Australia)
            The major product output rules in use
                        Scribner Short Log Rule (Western USA)
                        Scribner Long Log Rule (Northwestern USA, West coast Canada)
                        The Doyle Log Rule (Central and Eastern North America)
                        International-1/4" Inch Log Rule (Eastern North America)
            Other methods of scaling
                        Weight scale
                        Stacked wood scale
                        Automated measurement systems (scanners, photo-cells)
            Converting between log scaling methods
                        Modeling conversion factors
                        Examples of using conversions
            Sample scaling
                        Determining sample size
                        Types of sample scaling
                        Population and subpopulations to be expanded (stratum)
                        Level of expansion
                        Expansion time window
MEASURING LOG YARD INVENTORIES AND MILL USAGE VOLUME
            Basic concepts
            Methods of measuring log yard inventory
                        Stacked measure (deck factors)
                        Scaled inventory
                        Sample scaled inventory
                        Weight expanded inventory
                        Count (load or log)
                        Book estimated inventory
            Calculating mill log usage volume
                        Measure the inventory and deliveries, and solve for the usage
                        Measure the production and solve for the usage by utilizing a recovery factor
                        Measure usage directly
MEASURING LOG QUALITY
            Log grading
                        Grading sawlogs and peelers
                        Grading chip logs
            Log manufacturing quality
ROUNDWOOD WEIGHT AND GENERAL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
            The variables that determine weight to volume ratios
                        Moisture content
                        Wood density
                        Bark volume and weight
                        Deducted defect volume
            Conversions to and from weight
METRICS OF LUMBER RECOVERY
            Measuring lumber volume
                        Lumber board foot measure
                        Lumber cubic volume
            Factors affecting lumber recovery
                        Milling efficiency
                        Log characteristics
            Recovery trends by log size and lumber products produced
                        Cubic scaled logs
                        Product output scaled logs
METRICS OF PLYWOOD/VENEER RECOVERY
            Measuring plywood and veneer volume
            Factors affecting plywood and veneer recovery
                        Milling efficiency
                        Log characteristics
            Plywood and veneer recovery trends by log size and scaling method
                        Cubic scaled logs
                        Product output scaled logs
METRICS OF WOOD CHIPS AND OTHER RESIDUE RECOVERY FROM LOGS
            Units of measure
            Product recovery
                        Chips
                        Sawdust
                        Shavings
                        Bark
                        Residual wood fiber to product ratios
                        Wood energy
REFERENCES
APPENDIX 1 MEASURING LOG VOLUME
        Commonly used conversion ratios
        Brief description of other selected log scales in use
                                British standard
                                German log scaling standard
                                Hirogoku
                                Norwegian cubic log scale
                                Quebec cubic metric
                                New Brunswick cubic metre scale
                                Maine rule
                                Newfoundland board foot rule
                                New Brunswick board foot rule
                                Ontario board foot rule                
        USFS segment length and trim allowance chart
        USFS segment taper distribution chart
        USFS Cubic log scale 'half segment' volume chart
        Half segment cubic metre volume chart
        Alberta cubic metre 'one diameter regression formula method' chart
        Full segment cubic metre volume chart
        Swedish cubic volume chart
        New Zealand 3-D volume chart
        Hoppus cubic feet and cubic metre volume chart
        JAS cubic volume
        Summarized volumes of control group of logs used for modeling conversions
        Long Log Scribner volume per Short Log Scribner volume index
        Washington and Oregon mill survey Scribner to BC cubic metre index
APPENDIX 2 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND WEIGHT TO VOLUME DATA
          Weight-to-volume data for common timber species of the world in the log form
        Bone-dry weight and volume conversions for selected tree species of the world
APPENDIX 3 GLOSSARY
INDEX

      Purchase Information
 
In North America, The Measurements of Roundwood: Methodologies and Conversion Ratios can be purchased from: Amazon.com. Outside of North America it can be purchased from: Cabi Publishing. It is also available from many other reputable book sellers. If you have any questions for the author in regard to this book, please feel free to send an email with your questions.